|Exploring for Oil and Gas Traps|
|Series||Treatise in Petroleum Geology|
|Part||Predicting the occurrence of oil and gas traps|
|Chapter||Predicting reservoir system quality and performance|
|Author||Dan J. Hartmann, Edward A. Beaumont|
What is the Archie equation?
Archie developed his famous equation to calculate, from well log parameters, the water saturation (Sw) of the uninvaded zone in a formation next to a borehole. The Archie equation can be expressed as follows:
- Sw = water saturation of the uninvaded zone
- n = saturation exponent, which varies from 1.8 to 4.0 but normally is 2.0
- Rw = formation water resistivity at formation temperature
- Φ = porosity
- m = cementation exponent, which varies from 1.7 to 3.0 but normally is 2.0
- Rt = true resistivity of the formation, corrected for invasion, borehole, thin bed, and other effects
Limitations of the Archie equation
Even though numerous other relationships have been developed over the years, the Archie equation remains the most flexible and generally useful approach. Yet its proper application requires knowledge of its limitations. The equation was empirical in origin and therefore needs modification in rock–fluid combinations different from Archie's experiments. Modifications need to be made in rocks with the following characteristics:
- Non-Archie pore geometries (i.e., not intergranular or intercrystalline) (See Pore systems.)
- Conductive minerals such as clays and pyrite
- Very fresh (i.e., nonsaline) formation waters
This section discusses the Archie equation in general terms; suggested methods are most useful when dealing with modern log suites of good quality.
Deriving values for Archie variables
Values for the five Archie variables are relatively easy to derive when a formation is thick, has a clay-free matrix, and/or is dominated by intergranular or intercrystalline porosity (Archie porosity). Formations that are thin bedded (i.e., below limits of logging tool resolution), have clay in their matrix, or have moldic, vuggy, or fracture porosity require adjustments. The table below lists the five variables and methods for deriving or estimating them.
|1||n||Not sure of rock type||Use 2.0|
||Thin beds, hydrocarbons in zone, or fresh formation waters make SP calculations uncertain||Use thin-bed correction or another method|
|3||Φ||Value derived from cores, density, density–neutron, or sonic logs (See Basic open hole tools.)||Density–neutron log matrix setting does not match formation matrix||Use density– neutron crossplot (See Determining porosity from density-neutron logs.)|
|4||m||Not sure of rock type or pore geometry||Use 2.0|
|5||Rt||Value derived from deep resistivity log such as RILD or RLLD||Beds are thin, invasion occurred or borehole has washouts||Use chartbook corrections|
- Determining water saturation
- Determining Rt
- Calculating Rw from SP logs
- Constructing a Pickett plot
- Pore systems
- Archie, G. E., 1952, Classification of carbonate reservoir rocks and petrophysical considerations: AAPG Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 2, p. 218–298. A classic paper written way before its time.